Technologies that employ engineered materials or devices with a functional organization on the nanometre scale — that is, one billionth of a meter — in at least one dimension, typically ranging from one to one hundred nanometers — are referred to as nanotechnologies.This suggests that physical and/or chemical means can be used to manipulate and control at least some aspect of the material or device at nanometer resolutions, resulting in functional properties that are unique to the engineered technology and not shown by its constituent parts.As a result, the functional properties that determine how nanotechnologies interact are what most define them.The engineering and functional properties of a nanomaterial or device are more important than their chemical and/or physical composition in the overall technological process.

The study of molecular, cellular, and physiological processes are among the basic neuroscience applications of nanotechnology.Nanoengineered materials and methods for supporting other technologies designed to interact with neurons in vivo (such as coating of recording or stimulating electrodes) or for promoting neuronal adhesion and growth are one example. These technologies can help us comprehend the underlying neurobiology.Nanoengineered materials and methods for directly interacting, recording, or stimulating neurons at the molecular level are another option.Imaging applications that make use of nanotechnology tools like chemically functionalized semiconductor quantum dots are a third example.

Clinical neuroscience uses nanotechnology to study ways to control and reverse neuropathological disease states.These include nanotechnology methods that help or encourage the nervous system’s functional regeneration;strategies for neuroprotection, particularly those that make use of fullerene derivatives;and strategies based on nanotechnology that make it easier to get drugs and other small molecules across the blood — brain barrier.Although there are numerous obstacles to overcome when employing nanotechnology applications in neuroscience, their impact on comprehending how the nervous system functions, how it fails in disease, and how we can intervene at the molecular level is significant.Technologies can be tailored to specific applications by making use of drugs, small molecules, neurotransmitters, and neural developmental factors.New alterations can be made, for instance, to the receptors of neural developmental factors like the cadherin, laminin, and bone morphometric protein families.By incorporating these molecules into engineered materials and devices, nanotechnology enables the use of these molecules’ functional specificity to produce highly specialized effects.

When using nanotechnology in neuroscience, the need for greater specificity, multiple induced physiological functions, and minimal side effects are the primary technical obstacles.The CNS’ inherent complexity and its anatomically restrictive nature are two additional unique challenges that must be taken into consideration in vivo.